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|Title: ||17-AAG Kills Intracellular Leishmania amazonensis while Reducing Inflammatory Responses in Infected Macrophages|
|Other Titles: ||PLoS ONE|
|Authors: ||Petersen, Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida|
Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio
Versoza, Carolina Leite
Lima, José Geraldo Bomfim
Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de
Borges, Valéria de Matos
Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
|Keywords: ||Leishmania;Macrophages;Endemic Diseases|
|Issue Date: ||2012|
|Abstract: ||Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected endemic disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Pentavalent antimonials have been the treatment of choice for the past 70 years and, due to the emergence of resistant cases, the efficacy of these drugs has come under scrutiny. Second-line drugs are less efficacious, cause a range of side effects and can be costly. The formulation of new generations of drugs, especially in developing countries, has become mandatory.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated the anti-leishmanial effect of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an HSP90 inhibitor, in vitro. This inhibitor is currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment; however, its effects against intracellular Leishmania remain untested. Macrophages infected with L. amazonensis were treated with 17-AAG (25–500 nM) and parasite load was quantified using optical microscopy. Parasite load declined in 17-AAG-treated macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Intracellular parasite death became irreversible after 4 h of treatment with 17-AAG, and occurred independent of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2−) production. Additionally, intracellular parasite viability was severely reduced after 48 h of treatment. Interestingly, treatment with 17-AAG reduced pro-inflammatory mediator production, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, yet IL-12 remained unaffected. Electron microscopy revealed morphological alterations, such as double-membrane vacuoles and myelin figures at 24 and 48 h after 17-AAG treatment.
Conclusions/Significance: The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, possesses high potency under low dosage and reduces both pro-inflammatory and oxidative molecule production. Therefore, further studies are warranted to investigate this inhibitor’s potential in the development of new generations of anti-leishmanials.|
|Description: ||p. 1-12|
|Appears in Collections:||Artigos Publicados em Periódicos (Medicina)|
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