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Title: Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies
Other Titles: Lancet
Authors: Barreto, Mauricio Lima
Genser, Bernd
Strina, Agostino
Teixeira, Maria da Glória Lima Cruz
Assis, Ana Marlucia de Oliveira
Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco
Teles, Carlos A.
Prado, Matildes da Silva
Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de
Santos, Darci Neves dos
Santos, Lenaldo Azevedo dos
Cairncross, Sandy
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Abstract: Background A city-wide sanitation intervention was started in Salvador, Brazil, in 1997 to improve sewerage coverage from 26% of households to 80%. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiological eff ect of this city-wide sanitation programme on diarrhoea morbidity in children less than 3 years of age. Methods The investigation was composed of two longitudinal studies done in 1997–98 before the intervention (the sanitation programme) and in 2003–04 after the intervention had been completed. Each study consisted of a cohort of children (841 in the preintervention study and 1007 in the postintervention study; age 0–36 months at baseline) who were followed up for a maximum of 8 months. Children were sampled from 24 sentinel areas that were randomly chosen to represent the range of environmental conditions in the study site. At the start of each study an individual or household questionnaire was applied by trained fi eldworkers; an environmental survey was done in each area before and after introduction of the sanitation programme to assess basic neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions. Daily diarrhoea data were obtained during home visits twice per week. The eff ect of the intervention was estimated by a hierarchical modelling approach fi tting a sequence of multivariate regression models. Findings Diarrhoea prevalence fell by 21% (95% CI 18–25%)—from 9·2 (9·0–9·5) days per child-year before the intervention to 7·3 (7·0–7·5) days per child-year afterwards. After adjustment for baseline sewerage coverage and potential confounding variables, we estimated an overall prevalence reduction of 22% (19–26%). Interpretation Our results show that urban sanitation is a highly eff ective health measure that can no longer be ignored, and they provide a timely support for the launch of 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation.
Description: November 10, p. 1622- 1628.
URI: http://www.repositorio.ufba.br/ri/handle/ri/1784
ISSN: 1474-547X
Appears in Collections:Artigos Publicados em Periódicos (Nutrição)
Artigos Publicados em Periódicos Estrangeiros (ISC)

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